术语表¶

Đ
Đ， 带短横的D ，在老式英语、中世纪英语、冰岛语和法罗语中使用，被用作“Eth”的缩写，被使用在诸如：ĐEV 或者 Đapp（去中心化应用），Đ表示挪威语的“eth”。大写的eth（Đ）同时也是加密货币“狗狗币”（Dogecoin）的符号。
decentralized application (= dapp)

DAO(decentralized autonomous organization)去中心自治组织

DAO是建立在区块链之上的合约（或一系列合约），旨在制定规则、强制执行或使组织工作自动化，包括治理、筹资、运营、支出和扩张。
identity(身份)

digital identity(数字身份)

unique identity(唯一身份)

reputation(声誉)

escrow(委托契约)

deposit(保证金)

web of trust(信任网结构)

incentive compatibility(激励兼容性)

collusion(勾结)

token system(令牌系统)

block(区块)

dapp
Đapp代表”decentralized application”（去中心化应用程序），一些说法是Đapp表示Ethapp，因为 uppercase eth letter Ð

ether(以太币)

EOA(外部账户)
EOA是外部账户(Externally Owned Account)的缩写，一个账户由一个私钥控制，如果你拥有一个账户所对应的私钥，那么你就拥有通过账户发送以太币和消息的能力。合约账户也拥有一个地址，详细信息查看： 账户。外部账户和合约账户在将来的宁静(Serenity)版本中可能会合并成一个单一账户。
gas(瓦斯)

gas limit(瓦斯上限)

gas price(瓦斯价格)

transaction(交易)

message(消息)

Web3
Web3规范的确切定义还在形成中，但是通常是指所有设备之间的连接性增加、服务和应用的去中心化、在线语义信息存储和人工智能应用的网络。
DAO(去中心化自治组织)

epoch(纪元)

elliptic curve (cryptography)
Refers to an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. See elliptic curve cryptography.
wallet(钱包)

contract(合约)

suicide(自杀)

selfdestruct(自销毁)
Solidity语言中的一个全局变量，它允许你”销毁当前的合约，将它的资金发送到指定的地址” <https://solidity.readthedocs.org/en/latest/miscellaneous.html#global-variables>_ 。 selfdestruct 是已经弃用的 suicide 操作的别名。详细请查看：EIP 6 - SUICIDE OPCODE改名 。它会释放在区块链上的空间防止合约在将来被执行，合约的地址会存在，但是所有发送到这个地址的以太币都会永久消失，只有合约的创建者可以通过 selfdestruct 来销毁合约。
transaction fee(交易费)

mining(挖矿)

mining pool(矿池)

mining reward(挖矿回报)

state(状态)

blockchain(区块链)

peer(节点)

signing(签名)

discovery (peer) 发现(节点)

gas price oracle(预言价格)
Geth客户端的一个帮助函数，用来在发送交易时尝试找出合适的默认瓦斯价格。
light client(轻量级客户端)

etherbase

coinbase
Coinbase是一个和etherbase类似的概念，但是对于众多的加密货币平台而言coinbase是一个更通用的术语。
balance(余额)

solidity
Solidity是一种语法类似JavaScript的高级语言，它被设计成以编译的方式生成以太坊虚拟机代码。
serpent
Serpent是一种语法类似Python的高级语言，它被设计成以编译的方式生成以太坊虚拟机代码。
EVM(以太坊虚拟机)

virtual machine(虚拟机)

peer to peer network(对等节点网络)

decentralization(去中心化)

distributed hash table(分布式哈希表)

NAT(网络地址转换)

nonce
Number Used Once or Number Once. A nonce, in information technology, is a number generated for a specific use, such as session authentication. Typically, a nonce is some value that varies with time, although a very large random number is sometimes used. In general usage, nonce means “for the immediate occasion” or “for now.” In the case of Blockchain Proof of Work scenarios, the hash value, found by a Miner, matching the network’s Difficulty thus proving the Block Validity is called Nonce as well.
proof-of-work(工作量证明)

proof-of-stake(权益证明)

CASPER(小精灵)
Casper是一种基于保证金的经济激励共识协议(security-deposit based economic consensus protocol)，这意味着节点，也就是“缴纳保证金的验证人(bonded validators)“，必须先缴纳保证金(这一步叫做“锁定”)才能参与共识机制和出块。如果一个验证人做出了任何Casper认为“无效”的事情，保证金都会被罚没收，同时也失去参与共识机制的权利。
consensus(共识)

metropolis(大都会)

serenity(宁静)

frontier(前沿)
Frontier(前沿)是以太坊计划中四个主要步骤的第一阶段，于2015年7月30日开始启动。命令行形式的前沿版本，最主要的意义就是挖矿操作的启用，确定了每出一个块会得到5个以太币的奖励回报，并促进了以太坊交易所的出现。前沿版本大大超越了预期的效果并且极大地推进了整个生态系统的发展。
olympic

morden
Morden是以太坊第一个测试网络，会与前沿和家园版本的整个周期共存。
testnet(测试网络)

private chain(私有链)

consortium chain(联盟链)

micropayment(微支付)

sharding(分片)

hash(哈希)

crypto-fuel(加密燃料)

cryptoeconomics(加密经济学)

protocol(协议)

block validation(区块验证)

blocktime(区块时间)

network hashrate(全网哈希率)

hashrate(哈希率)

serialization(序列化)

double spend(双花)
A deliberate blockchain fork, where a user with a large amount of mining power sends a transaction to purchase some produce, then after receiving the product creates another transaction sending the same coins to themselves. The attacker then creates a block, at the same level as the block containing the original transaction but containing the second transaction instead, and starts mining on the fork. If the attacker has more than 50% of all mining power, the double spend is guaranteed to succeed eventually at any block depth. Below 50%, there is some probability of success, but it is usually only substantial at a depth up to about 2-5; for this reason, most cryptocurrency exchanges, gambling sites and financial services wait until six blocks have been produced (“six confirmations”) before accepting a payment.
SPV client
A client that downloads only a small part of the blockchain, allowing users of low-power or low-storage hardware like smartphones and laptops to maintain almost the same guarantee of security by sometimes selectively downloading small parts of the state without needing to spend megabytes of bandwidth and gigabytes of storage on full blockchain validation and maintenance. See light client.
uncle
Uncles are blockchain blocks found by a miner, when a different miner has already found another block for the corresponding place in the blockchain. They are called “stale blocks”. The parent of an Uncle is an ancestor of the inserting block, located at the tip of the blockchain. In contrast to the Bitcoin network, Ethereum rewards stale blocks as well in order to avoid to penalize miners with a bad connection to the network. This is less critical in the Bitcoin network, because the Block Time there is much higher (~10 minutes) than on the Ethereum network (aimed to ~15 seconds).
GHOST
Greedy Heaviest-Observed Sub-Tree is an alternative chain-selection method that is designed to incentivize stale blocks (uncles) as well, thus reducing the incentive for pool mining. In GHOST, even the confirmation given by stale blocks to previous blocks are considered valid, and the miners of the stale blocks are also rewarded with a mining reward.
merkle patricia tree
Merkle Patricia trees provide a cryptographically authenticated data structure that can be used to store all (key, value) bindings. They are fully deterministic, meaning that a Patricia tree with the same (key,value) bindings is guaranteed to be exactly the same down to the last byte and therefore have the same root hash, provide O(log(n)) efficiency for inserts, lookups and deletes, and are much easier to understand and code than more complex comparison-based alternatives like red-black trees.
DAG
DAG stands for Directed Acyclic Graph. It is a graph, a set of nodes and links between nodes, that has very special properties. Ethereum uses a DAG in Ethash, the Ethereum Proof of Work (POW) algorithm.The Ethash DAG takes a long time to be generated, which is done by a Miner node into a cache file for each Epoch. The file data is then used when a value from this graph is required by the algorithm.
uncle rate
The number of uncles produced per block.
issuance
The minting and granting of new cryptocurrency to a miner who has found a new block.
presale
Sale of cryptocurrency before the actual launch of the network.
static node
A feature supported by Geth, the Golang Ethereum client, which makes it possible to always connect to specific peers. Static nodes are re-connected on disconnects. For details, see the section on static nodes.
bootnode
The nodes which can be used to initiate the discovery process when running a node. The endpoints of these nodes are recorded in the Ethereum source code.
exchange
An online marketplace which facilitates the exchange of crypto or fiat currencies based on the market exchange rate.
compiler
A program that translates pieces of code written in high level languages into low level executable code.
genesis block
The first block in a blockchain.
network id
A number which identifies a particular version of the Ethereum network.
The data in a block which is unique to its content and the circumstances in which it was created. It includes the hash of the previous block’s header, the version of the software the block is mined with, the timestamp and the merkle root hash of the contents of the block.
pending transaction
A transaction that is not yet confirmed by the Ethereum network.
block propagation
The process of transmitting a confirmed block to all other nodes in the network.
sidechain
A blockchain that branches off a main blockchain and checks in periodically with the main blockchain. Besides that it runs independently from the main chain, and any security compromises in the sidechain will not affect the main chain.
pegging
Locking down the exchange rate of the coins/tokens in two chains (usually a main and a side chain) in a certain direction.
2-way pegging
Locking down the exchange rate of the coins/tokens in two chains (usually a main and a side chain) in both directions.
trustless
Refers to the ability of a network to trustworthily mediate transactions without any of the involved parties needing to trust anyone else.
faucet
checksum
A count of the number of bits in a transmission that is included with the unit so that the receiving end can verify that the entirety of the message has been transmitted.
ICAP
Interexchange Client Address Protocol, an IBAN-compatible system for referencing and transacting to client accounts aimed to streamline the process of transferring funds, worry-free between exchanges and, ultimately, making KYC and AML concerns a thing of the past.
private key
A private key is a string of characters known only to the owner, that is paired with a public key to set off algorithms for text encryption and decryption.
public key
A string of characters derived from a private key that can be made public. The public key can be used to verify the authenticity of any signature created using the private key.
encryption
Encryption is the conversion of electronic data into a form unreadable by anyone except the owner of the correct decryption key. It can further be described as a process by which a document (plaintext) is combined with a shorter string of data, called a key (e.g. c85ef7d79691fe79573b1a7064c19c1a9819ebdbd1faaab1a8ec92344438aaf4), to produce an output (ciphertext) which can be “decrypted” back into the original plaintext by someone else who has the key, but which is incomprehensible and computationally infeasible to decrypt for anyone who does not have the key.
digital signature
A mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or documents.
port
A network port is a communication endpoint used by a one of the existing standards of establishing a network conversation (e.g. TCP, UDP).
RPC
Remote Procedure Call, a protocol that a program uses to request a service from a program located in another computer in a network without having to understand the network details.
IPC
Interprocess communication (IPC) is a set of programming interfaces that allow a programmer to coordinate activities among different program processes that can run concurrently in an operating system.
attach
The command used to initiate the Ethereum Javascript console.
daemon
A computer program that runs as a background process instead of in direct control by an interactive user.
system service
See base layer service
base layer service
Services such as SWARM and Whisper which are built into the Ethereum platform.
js
Javascript.
syncing
fast sync
Instead of processing the entire block-chain one link at a time, and replay all transactions that ever happened in history, fast syncing downloads the transaction receipts along the blocks, and pulls an entire recent state database.
ASIC
Application-specific integrated circuit, in this case referring to an integrated circuit custom built for cryptocurrency mining.
memory-hard
Memory hard functions are processes that experience a drastic decrease in speed or feasibility when the amount of available memory even slightly decreases.
keyfile
Every account’s private key/address pair exists as a single keyfile. These are JSON text files which contains the encrypted private key of the account, which can only be decrypted with the password entered during account creation.
ICAP format
The format of the IBANs defined using the Inter-exchange Client Address Protocol.
block(chain) explorer
A website that allows easy searching and extraction of data from the blockchain.
geth
Ethereum client implemented in the Golang programming language, based on the protocol as defined in the Ethereum Yellow Paper.
eth
Ethereum client implemented in the C++ programming language, based on the protocol as defined in the Ethereum Yellow Paper.
ethereumjs
Ethereum client implemented in the Javascript/Node programming language, based on the protocol as defined in the Ethereum Yellow Paper.
pyethereum
Ethereum client implemented in the Python programming language, based on the protocol as defined in the Ethereum Yellow Paper.
ethereumj
Ethereum client implemented in the Java programming language, based on the protocol as defined in the Ethereum Yellow Paper.
ethereumh
Ethereum client implemented in the Haskell programming language, based on the protocol as defined in the Ethereum Yellow Paper.
parity
Ethereum client implemented in the Rust programming language, based on the protocol as defined in the Ethereum Yellow Paper.
difficulty
In very general terms, the amount of effort required to mine a new block. With the launch of Homestead, the difficulty adjustment algorithm will change.
account
Accounts are a central part of the Ethereum network and are an essential part of any transaction or contract. In Ethereum, there are two types of accounts: Externally Owned accounts (EOA) and Contract accounts.
HLL (obsolete)
Acronym for Higher Level Language, which is what Serpent and Solidity are. HLL is what early Ðapp developers called Ethereum programming languages that did not touch the low level elements. This phrase has been phased out.
CLL (obsolete)
Acronym for C Like Language, which Mutan was. This acronym has been phased out.
ES1, ES2, and ES3 (obsolete)
“Ethereum Script” versions 1,2 and 3. There were early versions of what would become the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
log event
Contracts are triggered by transactions executed as part of the block verification. If conceived of as a function call, contract execution is asynchronous, and therefore they have no return value. Instead contracts communicate to the outside world with log events. The log events are part of the transaction receipt which is produced when the transaction is executed. The receipts are stored in the receipt trie, the integrity of which is guaranteed by the fact that the current root of the receipt trie is part of the block header alongside the roots of state and state-trie. In a broad sense from the external perspective receipts are part of the Ethereum system state except that they are not readable contracts internally.